I had my superposed fitted with two Edwards Reducers. The combination of the added weight and the reducers calmed the beast down enough to make it enjoyable to shoot. If that hadn't worked, my next step would have been a padded comb..Never got to that point.
I have 2 Lightning traps. Lengthening forcing cones made them shootable all
day for me (before I was sore in less than a hundred rounds). My daughter
now shoots the one in Sporting Clays, quite well.
Call whatever you like, I've owned three Perazzi Comp-1's four or five of MX 8's a slew of TM-1 and TMX's, four or five Browning BT-99'maybe more a couple of three Citori's a Winchester 101 combo. The common thread with all of these guns, they would kick the crap out of you until the forcing cones were lengthened. The greatest offenders by a wide margin were the Comp-1's and the 101 combo. I've also owned later renditions of Perazzi, Browning, Guerini's, Beretta's with factory overboard barrels and lenghtened forcing cones that are a joy to shoot right out of the box. So say what you will, I know what I know and you know what you know, it's a push. I think it's called life.
To help those who may not know or understand the function of the forcing cone in a shotgun: The forcing cone is the area just in front of the end of the chamber of a shotgun barrel. It's purpose is to funnel the shot from the shell into the barrel. The chamber on a 12 bore is about .810 in diameter, and the average bore diameter is about .728, with some European guns such as Beretta as small as .722. The space between where the chamber ends is tapered from the .810 down to the .728. This means the shot has to get squeezed into a hole that is about .090 smaller in diameter than its starting point. This creates back pressure, and the shorter the forcing cone, the more back pressure which produces more felt recoil. Many shotguns have only about a 1/4 to 1/2 of an inch between the chamber and the bore. This causes the shot to get squeezed together when fired, with the shot all trying to get into the smaller diameter bore at once.
By lengthening that distance between the chamber and the bore, or the "forcing cone", that distance is increased in a gentle taper, out 1 to 2 inches. This allows the shot to be less squeezed when making the trip through the forcing cone and into the bore of the barrel. This increase in the length of the forcing cone reduces the felt recoil and at the same time, produces less damage to the pellets resulting in better pattern performance and less felt recoil. Lengthening the forcing cone is one of the most productive modifications you can do to a shotgun. Many of the newer model guns already come with the forcing cone extended.
I do forcing cones in my shop frequently at $75 per barrel.
Shotguns have been around a long time. If longer forcing cones are so good, I wonder why their implementation is so recent? There has to be a good reason why all the makers kept to short cones for so many years.
I had the forcing cones run out on a Superposed Trap model and couldn't tell the slightest difference.
No one has a really definitive answer and this topic has been hashed to death. But the best answer hinges around carded fiber wadded shotshells and the need to maintain a gas seal/pressure when the wadding transitioned from shotshell to barrel. Some say the cones prevent the wad mass from cocking as it transitions into the barrel. Others say the wad mass expands before it transitions into the barrel and forcing cone gently forces the wadding back to its original dimension to maintain a gas seal. Any or all answers may be correct.
We the American shooter unlike other countries moved away from carded shotshells with the exception of a few nostalgia shooters. We changed to the plastic piston shot cup as soon as they became widely available. The plastic piston shot cup aka plastic wad does not require forcing cones to maintain a gas seal when transtioning into the barrel. In fact it appears plastic piston shot cups respond differently than fiber wadding and may be the cause of increased felt recoil when fired through a barrel with forcing cones and felt recoil is reduced when forcing cones are lengthened or removed.
Johnny, tell me why an old black powder shotgun will blow out eight or ten inches in front of the breech when a modern smokeless powder shotshell is fired through it. Then tell me why a black powder load bulge the end of a modern day shotgun. Also while your at it tell me whay black powder cannons have thicker barrels at the discharge end than at the breech. does it have something to do with burn rates, gas expansion??????????