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O/T Orangutan Second in Intelligence 1/5/08

Discussion in 'Uncategorized Threads' started by Earl4140, Jan 5, 2008.

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  1. Earl4140

    Earl4140 TS Member

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    "Orangutans are the most arboreal of the great apes, spending nearly all of their time in the trees. Every night they fashion nests, in which they sleep, from branches and foliage. They are more solitary than the other apes, with males and females generally coming together only to mate. Mothers stay with their babies until the offspring reach an age of six or seven years. There is significant sexual dimorphism between females and males: females can grow to around 4 ft 2 in or 127 centimetres and weigh around 100 lbs or 45 kg, while fully mature males can reach 5 ft 9 in or 175 centimetres in height and weigh over 260 lbs or 118 kg.[7] Fully mature males can be distinguished by their prominent cheek flanges and longer hair.

    Adult male orangutans exhibit two modes of physical development, flanged and unflanged. Flanged adult males have a variety of secondary sexual characteristics, including cheek pads (called "flanges"), throat pouch, and long fur, that are absent from both adult females and from unflanged males. Flanged males establish and protect territories that do not overlap with other flanged males' territories. Adult females, juveniles, and unflanged males do not have established territories. A flanged male's mating strategy involves establishing and protecting a territory, advertising his presence, and waiting for receptive females to find him. Unflanged males are also able to reproduce; their mating strategy involving finding females in estrus and forcing copulation. Males appear to remain in the unflanged state until they are able to establish and defend a territory, at which point they can make the transition from unflanged to flanged within a few months.[8] The two reproductive strategies, referred to as "call-and-wait" for flanged male and "sneak-and-rape" for the unflanged male, were found to be approximately equally effective in one study group.[9]

    Orangutans eat mostly fruit which makes up 60% of their diet. Fruits with sugary or fatty pulp are favored. The fruit of fig trees are also commonly eaten since it is easy to both harvest and digest. Other food items include: young leaves, shoots, seeds and bark. Insects and bird eggs are also included.[10]

    Orangutans are thought to be the sole fruit disperser for some plant species including the climber species Strychnos ignatii which contains the toxic alkaloid strychnine.[11] It does not appear to have any effect on orangutans except for excessive saliva production.

    Orangutans at Singapore ZooLike the other great apes, orangutans are remarkably intelligent. Although tool use among chimpanzees was documented by Jane Goodall in the 1960s, it was not until the mid-1990s that one population of orangutans was found to use feeding tools regularly. A 2003 paper in the journal Science described the evidence for distinct orangutan cultures.[12]

    According to recent research by Harvard University psychologist, James Lee, orangutans are the world's most intelligent animal other than man, with higher learning and problem solving ability than chimpanzees, which were previously considered to have greater abilities. A study of orangutans by Carel van Schaik, a Dutch primatologist at Duke University, found them capable of tasks well beyond chimpanzees’ abilities — such as using leaves to make rain hats and leakproof roofs over their sleeping nests. He also found that, in some food-rich areas, the creatures had developed a complex culture in which adults would teach youngsters how to make tools and find food.[13]

    A two-week old orangutanA two year study of orangutan symbolic capability was conducted from 1973-1975 by Gary L. Shapiro with Aazk, a juvenile female orangutan at the Fresno City Zoo (now Chaffee Zoo) in Fresno, California. The study employed the techniques of David Premack who used plastic tokens to teach the chimpanzee, Sarah, linguistic skills. Shapiro continued to examine the linguistic and learning abilities of ex-captive orangutans in Tanjung Puting National Park, in Indonesian Borneo, between 1978 and 1980. During that time, Shapiro instructed ex-captive orangutans in the acquisition and use of signs following the techniques of R. Allen and Beatrix Gardner who taught the chimpanzee, Washoe, in the late-1960s. In the only signing study ever conducted in a great ape's natural environment, Shapiro home-reared Princess, a juvenile female who learned nearly 40 signs (according to the criteria of sign acquisition used by Francine Patterson with Koko, the gorilla) and trained Rinnie, a free-ranging adult female orangutan who learned nearly 30 signs over a two year period. For his dissertation study, Shapiro examined the factors influencing sign learning by four juvenile orangutans over a 15-month period.[14]

    The first orangutan language study program, directed by Dr. Francine Neago, was listed by Encyclopedia Britannica in 1988. The Orangutan language project at the Smithsonian National Zoo in Washington, D.C., uses a computer system originally developed at UCLA by Neago in conjunction with IBM.[15] .


    Orangutan "laughing"Zoo Atlanta has a touch screen computer where their two Sumatran Orangutans play games. Scientists hope that the data they collect from this will help researchers learn about socializing patterns, such as whether they mimic others or learn behavior from trial and error, and hope the data can point to new conservation strategies. [16]

    Although orangutans are generally passive, aggression toward other orangutans is very common; they are solitary animals and can be fiercely territorial. Immature males will try to mate with any female, and may succeed in forcibly copulating with her if she is also immature and not strong enough to fend him off. Mature females easily fend off their immature suitors, preferring to mate with a mature male.

    Orangutans have even shown laughter-like vocalizations in response to physical contact, such as wrestling, play chasing, or tickling. (Wikipedia Edited) Earl
     
  2. alfermann66

    alfermann66 Member

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  3. Shooting Coach

    Shooting Coach Banned User Banned

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    Has one of them made it to the 27 yet? LOL
     
  4. Hipshot 3

    Hipshot 3 TS Member

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    Based on this, can we assume Gordy came in third?
     
  5. Ron Frazier

    Ron Frazier TS Member

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    I would be willing to bet that they don't tease tigers for fun.
     
  6. redix

    redix TS Member

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    And the best evidence of their intelligence: Orangutan's don't shoot trap!
     
  7. Ron Frazier

    Ron Frazier TS Member

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    Redix,

    Then I guess they just passed me! Although some would say that I don't either!
     
  8. redix

    redix TS Member

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    And the best evidence of their intelligence: Orangutan's don't shoot trap!
     
  9. redix

    redix TS Member

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    That's funny, Ron!
     
  10. Earl4140

    Earl4140 TS Member

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    Thanks for all the acclaim. I posted this in response to the death of a 55 year old Orangtan. Two points interested me. Sexual mores and the fact that the intelligence of these wonderful cousins was not known until the 1990s.

    This has been so well received that I'm going to look in on the Great Apes. Earl
     
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