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Lead Alloy Hardness Chart

Discussion in 'Shooting Related Threads' started by GoldEx, May 12, 2010.

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  1. GoldEx

    GoldEx Active Member

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    I found this from an old metallurgy class. I thought some of you might find this interesting. Especially the melting points of the alloys as the amount of Antimony goes up. It actually lowers the melting point of the lead for awhile. This chart shows the melting point of the alloys in degrees Celsius. To convert a number to Fahrenheit: Degrees F = Degrees C X 9/5 + 32. Example .....
    280 Degrees C = ? Degrees F.... 280 X 9 Divided by 5 + 32 = 536 280 degrees C = 536 Deg F.

    Note the hardness of the alloy with the varying percentages of antimony and tin. If you want hard, add tin, easier to mix in. Lyman #2 Alloy which is the gold standard for rifle bullets is a 15 hardness for comparison.

    For some reason, the image is not nearly as clear here as on my hard drive. The numbers on the charts are as follows....

    On the top graph, lower left corner, the melting point is 320 C. Next line 310 C, 300, 290, 280, 270, 260, 250, and 245 just below line G.

    The Hardness chart starts at 10 right above the 10% tin number. Then increases by 2 up to 24 at line G.

    As you can see, to achieve a hardness of 15, which is pretty damn hard for shot in my opinion, you only need 3% antimony and 6% tin and youll have a melting point of around 285 C or 545 F. For a comparison... pure lead melts at 327 C or 621 F.

    Jeff
     
  2. wayneo

    wayneo Active Member

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    This is a cut from an article talking about atomic weights and melting points.....Wayne

    The melting point of an alloy is often quite different from the melting points of the pure metals from which it is made.

    Bismuth melts at 519.8° F (271.3° C).
    Tin melts at 447.8° F (231.8° C).
    Lead melts at 620.6° F (327.5° C).
    Indium melts at 312.8° F (156.6° C).


    Pure substances have a sharp melting point. A pure substance is either an element, or a chemical compound. Mixtures melt over a range of temperatures.

    A eutectic alloy is one that has a sharp melting point. This implies that it is a chemical compound, where the elements are bound together in strict proportions, rather than a simple mixture of elements.

    In a mixture of elements, some of them will react together to make compounds. Compounds consist of exact proportions of one atom to another, such as one to one, two to one, three to two, etc. Any excess of one element over another will not react, and will stay in the mixture as a pure element.

    That is why mixures have a wider melting point. One chemical melts at one temperature, and the others melt at higher temperatures. Only when all of them have melted do you get a true liquid.

    What makes a substance melt at a given temperature is how strongly the molecules of the material bind to one another. Sometimes two elements combine to form a compound that binds tightly to itself. This would raise the melting point. Other times, the compound formed does not bind to itself as easily as the pure elements do. This compound would have a lower melting point than either of the pure elements. Compounds are not limited to two elements. Sometimes many elements bind together into a single compound.
     
  3. sasquach

    sasquach Member

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    You guys sound like you know a little bit about this. My question is what causes the drippers to get clogged up. I have had it happen twice. Both times I had some real rainbow colors on the melt and it seemed kind of stringey. I have heard stick on weights and truck weights cause this but don't really know. Is zinc the culprit? I was told these weights contain babbit but babbit is an alloy. What is the ingredient in "babbit" that causes this?
     
  4. GoldEx

    GoldEx Active Member

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    A very tiny bit of Zinc will ruin a whole lot of lead. I would have to guess that it is the copper alloyed into the babbit material that is the culprit because the tin and antimony would not hurt you. Exactly what it does I am not sure. I am faily certain is is basically trying to solder itself into the drippers of a shotmaker as opposed to flowing through as it should.

    Jeff
     
  5. sasquach

    sasquach Member

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    I have a suspicion that it is zinc. What are the melting characteristics of zinc and how could you tell if an alloy contained zinc?
     
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