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Coyote Vision

Discussion in 'Shooting Related Threads' started by Brian in Oregon, Apr 22, 2010.

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  1. Brian in Oregon

    Brian in Oregon Well-Known Member

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    View attachment 249852

    This is my Remington R15, which at the time had an EOTech on it. It's since had a Leupold Mark AR 3-9x installed. It's resting on a jacket with Mossy Oak Obsession camo. Pics are in direct sunlight and overcast.

    View attachment 249853

    This is the same photo after processing in Photoshop with a channel filter set to simulate canine vision. This photo only shows the change in color. Humans have rods (b&W), and three color cones - red, blue and green. We have more color cones than rods, so our low light level vision is poorer than a coyote. A coyote has more rods for low light, but this came at the cost of only having two types of color cones, yellow and blue. Coyotes thus see red as yellow, and green varies from white to gray, though keep in mind that some colors that we perceive as, and call green, are actually yellow. Olive drab, for example, is actually a yellow, not a green, and this olive drab vegetation will appear as some shade of yellow, or tan. (You can test this by mixing yellow and black paint - the result will be olive drab.) Notice especially how the green leaves now match the tan leaves.

    Canines, including coyotes, are near-sighted. This is not reflected in the photo. Nor is acuity. Canines have an acuity of about 12 cycles per degree, while humans have an acuity of about 30 cycles per degree. Meaning we can resolve detail about 3x better than coyotes. In practical terms, a human with normal eyesight has 20/20 vision. The best a canine can do is about 20/50 to 20/100. This means fine detail in camo is a waste with coyotes, and the pattern will blur to where it starts to be monotone. I do not have filters to simulate this yet.

    One other difference is that the overall brightness of the altered photos should be increased. This is due to the coyote having more rods (b&W) than cones (color) than humans do. The photo should look a bit "washed out". I have not found out yet exactly what percentage increase this should be, so I have not simulated it here.

    Basically these are first steps in coming up with a simulator, and I have a ways to go. But the actual color conversion is done.

    If you want to see the difference in the color spectrum and acuity between humans and canines, visit this website:
    Dr. P's Dog Training: Vision in Dogs & People

    Also working on cats. Some have considered cats to not have color vision at all, while others say cats are dichromats (two colors, humans with three colors are trichromats). I've come across some scientific writings that claim cats are also trichomats, and see basically the same color spectrum as humans. But in their case cats did not give up a color cone for b&w rods. They gave up a lot of all of their color cones for more b&w rods. Thus their colors are heavily desaturated, being almost a b&w image, like an old photo with most of the color faded out. I have not worked out a filter for cat vision yet.

    A couple of more photos....

    View attachment 249854

    Image of my son Sean and I from a hunting trip a couple of years ago.

    View attachment 249855

    Same photo after using the canine conversion channel in Photoshop.

    In this photo I'm wearing a Mossy Oak New breakup jacket. Notice how it has turned more gray than yellow, and thus stands out from the background.

    And because of the acuity issue, my guess is that it is going to look more like Sean's gray sweat jacket (he took off his camo cover) because a coyote is not going to make out that level of detail as well.

    Also notice that while a deer stands out to us when it is in green foliage, its color is perfect when seen from the standpoint of what a coyote sees.

    Also notice Sean's old Remington 788 .308. The stock is a quite yellowish. To us it really stands out against green. To a coyote, it blends in pretty well with the background.
     
  2. Pocatello

    Pocatello Active Member

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    Anyone who says all canines are near-sighted has never attended a retriever field trial. Marking multiple bird falls at distances up to 300+ yards could not be accomplished with 20/100 vision.
     
  3. Brian in Oregon

    Brian in Oregon Well-Known Member

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    Actually, Larry, while 20/50 or 20/100 eyesight for a canine would appear to be a disadvantage, it isn't for their hunting ability.

    Even though canines have rods about the size of humans, and more of them, the rods are connected together in groups. This is one reason acuity is poorer. The purpose of this grouping is to increase sensitivity in low light.

    Another reason dogs have less sharp vision than humans is the reflective coating on the inner rear of their eye. This layer is called the tapetum lucidum. It reflects light back so it has a second chance to stimulate the rods. This helps with low light conditions. The drawback is this also causes some light scattering, making vision a bit fuzzier.

    This less clear vision is not a problem with canines picking up small moving objects. Canines can zero in on something moving and make a beeline for it. On the other hand, they have difficulty with stationary objects. Ever notice how a dog that can see a ball rolling 100 yards away or birds dropping 300 yards away can have trouble with a stationary ball 30 feet away?
     
  4. Remstar311

    Remstar311 Member

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    tapetum lucidum

    Thats why you can see coyote, deer, cats, etc eyes at night while your driving but not humans.
     
  5. Brian in Oregon

    Brian in Oregon Well-Known Member

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    Gillette feud? Oh, the beard. I've had a beard ever since I was married some 28 years ago. Have only shaved it off twice, and that was from trimming errors. Haven't had the moustache off ever since I was able to grow one.
     
  6. wolfram

    wolfram Well-Known Member

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    I can't tell a difference in the photos (really) ....

    Evidently I have Coyote Vision. (aka color blind)
     
  7. Brian in Oregon

    Brian in Oregon Well-Known Member

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    wolfram, it's quite possible. A lot of males have color blindness.

    BTW, my dad is partially color blind. He sees red as brown.

    View attachment 249850 View attachment 249851

    Here's a color chart for common Internet colors compared to the same chart when simulating color blindness. Notice how the bright reds and oranges have turned to yellows, tans and browns. About 8% of men suffer from this.

    It's one of the reasons I argue against making blaze orange mandatory for hunting. If 8% of male hunters see blaze orange as the color of a deer, just how safe does that make you feel? Would you wear tan or brown into the woods during deer season?
     
  8. wolfram

    wolfram Well-Known Member

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    Kind of hard to describe this color blindness. I think I see colors as in I can tell when somebody is wearing blaze orange and I can read traffic signals and not just by position but I don't pass any of those tests where there is a number hidden in a bunch of dots.

    Hunters wearing camo stand out like a dark shape.

    Can still appreciate nature's colors - a rooster pheasant comes to mind, beautiful even if I'm only seeing shades.
     
  9. wireguy

    wireguy TS Member

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    My high school hunting buddy depended on me to pick up his spent red hulls that fell in green or brown background.
     
  10. Pocatello

    Pocatello Active Member

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    Again, Brian, go watch a field trial sometime, it will open your eyes (pun intended). Typically, an All-Age Stake (the best dogs)will open with land marks, followed by a land blind, a water blind, and water marks. The marks are tests where the dog sees the birds in the air and falling, while blinds have the birds placed where the dog has not seen them, and must take directions from the handler to find and pick up the bird. The land marks will usually consist of a triple, but sometimes a double or a quad. There will be one flyer station throwing a live bird, with the others throwing a dead bird. The guns will be wearing white coats to help the dogs pick them out, but will NOT be moving. They will be situated some distance from the line, with the flyer station typically the closest. A common situation will have the flyer about 100 yards from the line, the first dead bird about 150, and the second over 200 yards away, using cover and terrain between the dogs and the birds to make the test more difficult. The handler brings the dog to the line at heel and has him sit, then uses "heel"/"here" commands to line him up to locate the guns, in reverse order of how they are to be thrown (last bird down/first guns shown). When the handler is satisfied that the dog has located all of the stationary guns, s/he signals to the judges. One judge then signals to the first set of guns to fire and throw their bird, and when it has landed signals the next set, and then the third. The dog is expected to sit at heel and watch the birds land, moving its gaze from the first bird, to the second, and so on. If the dog "breaks" before the sequence is over, it is disqualified. When the sequence is done, the signaling judge gives the handler permission to proceed, usually by saying "dog" or the dog's number in the program, and the handler sends the dog for the first bird, usually by saying the dog's name. The dog goes for the first bird, retrieves it, and delivers to hand, then is sent for the second bird, and so on. The closer the dog comes to taking a direct line to the bird and finding it with a minimal hunt, the better. Quite often one or both of the dead-bird stations will have the guns "retire", i.e. move some distance away and hide behind cover or a camouflaged blind, so that the dog does not have the aid of the guns to help locate the bird. The test will almost always be set up in a way so that the wind cannot aid the dog in locating the bird until it is in the immediate vicinity of the fall. The test is carefully designed to test the dog's "marking" ability, i.e. it's ability to locate fallen birds by watching them in the air and falling, from several hundred yards away. Again, the closer the dog can go directly to the bird while disturbing minimal cover, the better.

    One of the most outstanding dogs in the last 20 years was a Labrador male named Ebonstar Lean Mac. I judged him several times, and watched him win the National Amateur in Sun Valley in the mid-90s. There was one marking test in that stake that was particularly impressive, set up in a big sagebrush bowl just north of the Point of Rocks on Silver Creek near Picabo. The first bird down was a dead duck about 300 yards out in the middle of the bowl. The second was a hen pheasant about 200 yards out, to the left of the first, tossed over a small gully. The third was a rooster flyer shot to the left of the second bird, about 80 yards from the line, and the last a flyer duck to the right and 60 yards from the line. The afternoon was very hot and dry, with no wind. The two dead bird stations retired when the dog was sent for the last bird down, so that when the dog returned to be sent for the other birds there was just this big, featureless sage bowl with two flyer stations, one of which the dog had already visited. Dog after dog had huge hunts on the retired dead birds, with many having to be handled to at least one of them. When Max's turn came, he went directly to the right flyer, and had a short, tight hunt for the left flyer. On the left dead bird he took a line about five yards to the right of the bird, went about ten yards deep, jumped over the gully, and picked it up. Then he came back to the line to set up for the final bird. As he heeled and delivered the third bird and looked intently out for the last, I could tell that he didn't have just a general idea of where that bird was - he knew precisely where it was. His handler, Sherwin Scott, sent him, and Max went on a dead run out to the area, jumped over a large sage, and picked it up. You could not have drawn a straighter line with a ruler. It was one of the most impressive cases of marking I have ever seen.

    I don't know how field trial retrievers could be tested with eye charts, but watching hundreds of them in field trials over the years has convinced me that they have great visual acuity, and know how to use their eyes. Their vision is probably not quite as good as a pronghorn or mountain sheep, but it is damn good.
     
  11. Brian in Oregon

    Brian in Oregon Well-Known Member

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    I have seen field trials, and those dogs are good.

    Still, science is science. I have no doubt that canine eyesight is inferior to ours as far as acuity is concerned. But dogs have evolved into spotting moving game, targeting and tracking them. Instead of looking towards their eyes for the answer, I suggest it is inherent in their thought process, plus training. From that point of view, it makes these dogs even more remarkable.
     
  12. Dr.Longshot

    Dr.Longshot Banned Banned

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    My neighbor has gotten 32 coyotes last year on a farm 3/4 of a mile from me by snaring them where they go through the fence,

    No wonder I have not been able to call them in, I call and he gets them in the fence,

    Collects double bounties in different counties w/ various parts of the Coyote each county wants for the bounty.


    Gary Bryant
    Dr.longshot
     
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